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Volume-7 Issue-1

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Volume-7 Issue-1, March 2017, ISSN:  2231-2307 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. 

Page No.



Samir Khudhir Al-ani, Nada Abdulfatah Khattab

Paper Title:

Computational Optimization Aberration Coefficients of an Einzel Lens Operated Under Zero Magnification

Abstract:  In this researcher  has been studied to design an einzel  lens and  this present researcher, Which concerted about the design of electrostatic potential lens for  focused charge particle beam by using inverse method in designing to electrostatic  lens ,the paraxial  ray equation was solved using Rung - Kutta  method  ,The spherical and chromatic aberration coefficient Cs and Cc, respectively have been computed  using Simpsons rule.  The shape of the electrode of the electrostatic lens were determined by solving Laplace's equation, in this research, the results showed low values of spherical and chromatic aberrations which are considered as good criteria for good design Electron Optics, einzel Lens.

Electrostatic Lens, Spherical Aberrations, Chromatic Aberrations


1.       Nagy A. and Szilagyi M. (1974) '' introduction to the theory of  space charge optics  (Macmillan Press: London).
2.       Szilagyi, M. (1988), Electron and ion optics, (Plenum press: New York).

3.       Kirestein,  P.  T., Gordon,  S, K. and  Willam,  E.  W. (1967) Space- Charge Flow

4.       Hawkes P.W (2004). Recent advances  in electron optics  and electron microscopy, Annales de la Fondation Louis de Broglie, 29(1), 837-855.

5.       Sise, O.; Ulu, M.and Dogan, M. (2007), Characterization and modeling of multi-element electrostatic lens systems,

6.       P.W.  Hawkes and  A. Septier ed. Septier, Lens aberration Focusing of charged partical'' ,Academic press ,New York, 1967.

7.       Polyanin, A. D. (2002). Handbook of Linear Partial Differential Equations for Engineers and Scientists. Boca Raton: Chapman & Hall/CRC Press.

8.       Hawkes P. W. and Kasper E., (1989), Principles of electron optics ,1 (Academic Press: London).

9.       Al-Meshhdany, l.  A. M. (2002) "Theoretical desigen of an electron gun lenses using numerical methods, M.Sc. Thesis College of education for women, university of Baghdad, Iraq .

10.    Munro. E. 1975.  A  Set of Computer Programs for Calculating the Properties of Electron  Lenses, Cambridge  University, Eng. Dept., Report CUED/B-ELECT/TR45.

11.    Al-Khashab, M.A. and M. T. Al-Shamma (2009) , ''Minimizing the aberration of the unipotential electrostatic lenses of multi-electrodes





Poorva Khemaria, Shiv Kumar, Babita Pathik

Paper Title:

Implementation of Fog Computing in Cloud Enterprise for Data Security and Privacy Management

Abstract: advancement of cloud technology named as fog computing. The process of fog computing faced a problem of latency and internet connectivity. The access of data over the fog computing need some trust based authentication and authorization process. In fog computing environment two major issue one is data leakage and other is location privacy. The location privacy preserve the user access and authentication process. The location privacy in fog computing is major issue. For the location privacy used various authentication and authorization process. To address these dangers, auditable information stockpiling administration has been proposed with regards to distributed computing to secure the information. Strategies, for example, holomorphic encryption and searchable encryption are consolidated to give uprightness, confidentiality and variability for distributed storage framework to permit a customer to check its information put away on untrusted servers. In this paper used Bloom filter data structure for the location privacy in fog computing model. The fog computing model work very efficiently in terms of low latency and high speed.



1.       Flavio Bonomi, Rodolfo Milito, Jiang Zhu and Sateesh“Fog Computing and Its Role in the Internet of Things”, ACM, 2012, Pp 13-16.
2.       Kirak Hong, David Lillethun, BeateOttenwälder and Boris Koldehofe “Opportunistic Spatio-temporal Event Processing for Mobile Situation Awareness”, ACM, 2013, Pp 1-12.

3.       Kirak Hong, David Lillethun, Umak is hore Ramachandran, Beate Ottenwälder and Boris Koldehofe “Mobile Fog: A Programming Model for Large–Scale Applications on the Internet of Things”, ACM, 2013, Pp 1-6.

4.       Takayuki Nishio, Ryoichi Shinkuma, Tatsuro Takahashi and Narayan B. Mandayam “Service-Oriented Heterogeneous Resource Sharing for Optimizing Service Latency in Mobile Cloud”, ACM, 2013, Pp 19-26.

5.       Beate Ottenwälder, Boris Koldehofe, Kurt Rothermel and Umakishore Ramachandran “MigCEP: Operator Migration for Mobility Driven Distributed Complex Event Processing”, ACM, 2013, Pp 1-12.

6.       Ivan Stojmenovic and Sheng Wen “The Fog Computing Paradigm: Scenarios and Security Issues”, ACSIS, 2014, Pp 1-8.

7.       Stavros Salonikias, IoannisMavridis and Dimitris Gritzalis “Access Control Issues in Utilizing Fog Computing for Transport Infrastructure”, Springer, 2011, Pp 1-12.

8.       Tom H. Luan, Longxiang Gao, Zhi Li, Yang Xiang, Guiyi Weand Limin Sun “Fog Computing: Focusing on Mobile Users at the Edge”, arXiv, 2016, Pp 1-11.

9.       Salvatore J. Stolfo, Malek Ben Salem and Angelos D. Keromytis “Fog Computing: Mitigating Insider Data Theft Attacks in the Cloud”, IEEE, 2012, Pp 125-128.

10.    Mohammad Aazam andEui-Nam Huh “Fog Computing and Smart Gateway Based Communication for Cloud of Things”, IEEE, 2014, Pp 464-470.

11.    Flavio Bonomi, Rodolfo Milito, Preethi Natarajan and Jiang Zhu “Fog Computing: A Platform for Internet of Things and Analytics”, Springer, 2014, 2014, Pp 169-186.

12.    Luis M Vaquero and Luis. Rodero-Merino “Finding your Way in the Fog: Towards a Comprehensive Definition of Fog Computing”, HPL, 2014, Pp 1-6.

13.    Flavio Bonomi, “Connected Vehicles, theInternet of Things, and Fog Computing”, VANET 2011, Pp 44-56.

14.    Behrisch, M., Bieker, L., Erdmann, J., andKrajzewicz, D. Sumo “Simulation of urban mobility-an overview”, The Third International Conference on Advances in System Simulation, 2011, Pp 55–60.

15.    Bonomi, F., Milito, R., Zhu, J., and Addepalli,S. “Fog Computing and Its Role in the Internet of Things”, ACM, 2012,Pp. 13–16.

16.    A., Lu, H., Zheng, X., Musolesi, M., Fodor, K., and Ahn, G.-S. “The rise of pe

17.    Campbell, A. T., Eisenman, S. B., Lane, N. D.,Miluzzo, E., Peterson, R. ople-centric sensing”, IEEE, 2010, Pp 12–21.

18.    Cugola, G., and Margara, A. “Tesla: a formallydefined event specification language” ACM, 2010, Pp 50–61.

19.    Cugola, G., and Margara, A. “Low latencycomplex event processing on parallel hardware”, JPDC, 2012, Pp 205–218.

20.    Hendawi, A. M., and Mokbel, M. F. “Panda: APredictive Spatio-Temporal Query Processor”. International Conference on Advances in Geographic Information Systems, 2012, Pp 13–22.





Ratnesh Kumar Jain, Shiv Kumar, Babita Pathik

Paper Title:

An Enhancement on Block Cipher Key for Advanced Encryption Standard

Abstract:  The United State Government has standardized algorithm for encrypting and decrypting data which is known as AES (Advanced Encryption Standard). Information security is becoming very essential in data storage and transmission with the rapid growth of digital data exchange in an electronic way Cryptography play a vital role in information security system against different attacks which uses algorithms to scramble data into unreadable text which is only decrypted by those who has the associated key. It is of two types one for Symmetric and Asymmetric. Symmetric system has 288 bit block 128 bit commotional AES algorithm for 288 bit using 6x6 matrixes after implementation these points system is throughput at both sites encryption and decryption.

(Advanced Encryption Standard), United State, AES, Information security, Cryptography.


1.       Lee, NIST Special Publication 800-21, Guideline for Implementing Cryptography in the Federal Government, National Institute of Standards and Technology, November.
2.       Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), Federal Information Processing Standards Publication 197, November 26, 2001.

3.       Amish Kumar , Mrs. Namita Tiwari,”Efficient implementation and avalanche effect of AES” International Journal of Security, Privacy and Trust Management (IJSPTM), Vol. 1, No 3/4, August 2012.

4.       Chih-Pin Su, Tsung-Fu Lin, Chih-Tsun Huang, and Cheng-Wen Wu, National Tsing Hua University,”A high throughput low cost AES processor” IEEE Communications Magazine 63-804/03 © 2003 IEEE.

5.       Chong Hee Kim,”Improved Differential Fault Analysis on AES Key Schedule” IEEE Transaction on Information Forensics and Security, Vol. 7, No. 1, Feb 2012.

6.       Diaa Salama Abdul. Elminaam, Hatem M. Abdul Kader and Mohie M. Hadhoud,” Performance Evaluation of Symmetric Encryption Algorithms on Power Consumption for Wireless Devices” International Journal of Computer Theory and Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 4, October, 2009.

7.       Irbid, Jordan, “A new approach for complex encrypting and decrypting data” International Journal of Computer Networks & Communications (IJCNC) Vol.5, No.2, March

8.       J. Nechvatal, et. al., Report on the Development of the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), National Institute of Standards and Technology, October 2, 2000.

9.       Mohan H.S and A Raji Reddy,”Performance analysis of AES and MARS encryption algorithm” IJCSI International Journal of Computer Science Issues, Vol. 8, Issue 4, No 1, July 2011.

10.    Navraj Khatri, Rajeev Dhanda , Jagtar Singh ,”Comparison of power consumption and strict avalanche criteria at encryption/Decryption side of Different AES standards‟‟International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline.com) Vol. 2 Issue. 4, August 2012.

11.    Xinmiao Zhang and Keshab K. Parhi,”Implementation approaches for the advanced encryption standard algorithm”, IEEE Transactions 1531-636X/12©2002IEEE.






Vikash Kumar, Sanjay Sharma

Paper Title:

Lossless Image Compression through Huffman Coding Technique and Its Application in Image Processing using MATLAB

Abstract: Images include information about human body which is used for different purpose such as medical examination security and other plans Compression of images is used in some applications such as profiling information and transmission systems. Regard to importance of images information, lossless or loss compression is preferred. Lossless compressions are JPEG, JPEG-LS and JPEG2000 are few well-known methods for lossless compression. We will use differential pulse code modulation for image compression with Huffman encoder, which is one of the latest and provides good compression ratio, peak signal to noise ratio and minimum mean square error. . In this paper we try to answer the following question. Which entropy coding, Huffman, is more suitable compared to other from the compression ratio, performance, and implementation points of view? We have implemented and tested Huffman algorithms. Also we compare it with other existing methods with respect to parameter compression ratio, peak signal noise ratio.

Lossless Compression, PSNR, Compression-Ratio, Encoding Technique, Huffman Coding, JPEG2000, JPEG-LS, JPEG


1.    N. Parvatham and Seetharaman Gopalakrishnan, 2012 Third International Conference on Intelligent Systems Modelling and Simulation “A Novel Architecture for an Efficient Implementation of Image compression using 2D-DWT”
2.    Giridhar Mandyam, Nasir Ahmed, Neeraj Magotra, “Lossless Image compression using Discrete Cosine Transform”, Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation ,Vol.8, No.1, March, pp.21-26, 1997, Article no. VC970323.

3.    Donapati, S. Yagain “A Comparative Study of Effects of CSC on Image Compression Ratios While Using JPEG-XR”, Year of Publication (2013), pp. 158-161.

4.    J. Wang, “Shot Cut Detection Based On The Statistical Parameter Histogram With The Discrete Walsh Transform”, Second International Conference on MultiMedia and Information Technology, (2010).

5.    J. Ziv and A. Lempel, "A Universal Algorithm for Sequential Data Compression", IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, May 1977

6.    Dr. T. Bhaskara Reddy, Miss.Hema suresh yaragunti, Dr.S.kiran, Mrs.T.Anuradha “ A novel approach of lossless image compression using hashing and Huffman coding “,International Journal of Engineering research and technology ,vol.2 issue 3,march-2013.

7.    G.C Chang Y.D Lin (2010) “An Efficient Lossless ECG Compression Method Using Delta Coding and Optimal Selective Huffman Coding” IFMBE proceedings 2010, Volume 31, Part 6, 1327-1330, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-14515-5_338.






Kanos Matyokurehwa, Nehemiah Mavetera, Osden Jokonya

Paper Title:

Requirements Engineering Techniques: A Systematic Literature Review

Abstract:  Requirements engineering is a torrid task to requirements engineers because requirements keep changing and this affect the project’s delivery schedule and cost. Although various authors proposed numerous techniques to be used in requirements engineering, software projects still fail. The issue now lies on which technique to use to minimize project failures. The aim of the study was to identify gaps in requirements engineering techniques used. The paper used a systematic literature review of requirements engineering techniques used from January 2000 to July 2016. The study found out that a lot of techniques are used in requirements engineering and some of the techniques used are not adequately addressing the problem space but the solution space. The study identified some gaps in requirements engineering techniques that need further research in order to solve those gaps.

Requirements Engineering, Project Failure, Techniques, Changing Requirements, Technique limitations.


1.       Aguilar Calderón, J.A., Garrigós Fernández, I. and Mazón López, J.N., 2016. Requirements Engineering in the Development Process of Web Systems: A Systematic Literature Review.
2.       Hull, E., Jackson, K. and Dick, J., 2010. Requirements engineering. Springer Science & Business Media.

3.       Wang, X., Bettini, C., Brodsky, A., Jajoida, S.: Logical Design for Temporal Databases with Olaronke, G.E., Olaleke, J.O. and Olajide, M.S., 2010. A Survey on Requirement Analysis in the Nigerian Context.

4.       Batra, M and Bhatnagar, A, 2015, Descriptive Literature Review of Requirements Engineering Models. International Journal of advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engi-neering (Volume 5, Issue 2, pp. 289-293).

5.       Clancy, T., 2014. The Standish Group CHAOS Report. Project Smart.

6.       Kitchenham, B., Brereton, O.P., Budgen, D., Turner, M., Bailey, J. and Linkman, S., 2009. Systematic literature reviews in software engineering–a systematic literature review. Information and software technology, 51(1), pp.7-15.

7.       Jiang, L., Eberlein, A., Far, B.H. and Mousavi, M., 2008. A methodology for the selection of requirements engineering techniques. Software & Systems Modeling, 7(3), pp.303-328.

8.       Nuseibeh, B. and Easterbrook, S., 2000, May. Requirements engineering: a roadmap. In Pro-ceedings of the Conference on the Future of Software Engineering (pp. 35-46). ACM.

9.       Neill, C.J. and Laplante, P.A., 2003. Requirements engineering: the state of the practice. IEEE software, 20(6), p.40.

10.    Paetsch, F., Eberlein, A. and Maurer, F., 2003, June. Requirements Engineering and Agile Software Development. In WETICE (Vol. 3, p. 308).

11.    Gomes–andrigo, A., Pettersson, A. and Gorschek–tony, T., Market-Driven Requirements En-gineering Process Model, version 1.0.

12.    Van Lamsweerde, A., 2001. Goal-oriented requirements engineering: A guided tour. In Re-quirements Engineering, 2001. Proceedings. Fifth IEEE International Symposium on (pp. 249-262). IEEE.

13.    Darimont, R. and Lemoine, M., 2006, June. Goal-oriented Analysis of Regulations. In ReMo2V.

14.    Fowler, M., 2004. UML distilled: a brief guide to the standard object modeling language. Ad-dison-Wesley Professional.

15.    Ghezzi, C., Jazayeri, M. and Mandrioli, D., 2002. Fundamentals of software engineering. Prentice Hall PTR.

16.    Mauw, S., Reniers, M.A. and Willemse, T.A.C., 2000. Message Sequence Charts in the soft-ware engineering process. Handbook of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering, World Scientific Publishing Co, 1, pp.437-463.

17.    Jones, C., 2009. Software engineering best practices. McGraw-Hill, Inc..

18.    Pandey, D., Suman, U., Ramani, A.K. and AhilyaVishwavidyalaya, D., 2011. A Framework for modelling software requirements. International Journal of Computer Science, 8.

19.    Brace, W. and Cheutet, V., 2012. A framework to support requirements analysis in engineering design. Journal of Engineering Design, 23(12), pp.876-904.

20.    Hoorn, J.F. and Van der Veer, G.C., 2003. Requirements analysis and task design in a dynamic environment. Human-centred computing: Cognitive, social, and ergonomic aspects, 3, pp.472-476.

21.    Brinkkemper, J. and Solvberg, A., 2000. Tropos: A framework for requirements-driven soft-ware development. Information systems engineering: state of the art and research themes, p.11.

22.    Bleistein, S.J., Cox, K., Verner, J. and Phalp, K.T., 2006. B-SCP: A requirements analysis framework for validating strategic alignment of organizational IT based on strategy, context, and process. Information and software technology, 48(9), pp.846-868.

23.    Ali, R., Dalpiaz, F. and Giorgini, P., 2010. A goal-based framework for contextual requirements modeling and analysis. Requirements Engineering, 15(4), pp.439-458.

24.    Robinson, W.N., 2006. A requirements monitoring framework for enterprise systems. Re-quirements engineering, 11(1), pp.17-41.

25.    Yu, E. and Liu, L., 2001. Modelling trust for system design using the i* strategic actors framework. In Trust in Cyber-societies (pp. 175-194). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

26.    Tung, Y.W. and Chan, K.C., 2009. A Unified Human–Computer Interaction Requirements Analysis Framework for Complex Socio-technical Systems. International Journal of Hu-man-Computer Interaction, 26(1), pp.1-21.

27.    Uszok, A., Bradshaw, J.M., Lott, J., Johnson, M., Breedy, M., Vignati, M., Whittaker, K., Jakubowski, K., Bowcock, J. and Apgard, D., 2011, November. Toward a flexible ontolo-gy-based policy approach for network operations using the KAoS framework. In 2011-MILCOM 2011 Military Communications Conference (pp. 1108-1114). IEEE.

28.    Thüm, T., Kästner, C., Benduhn, F., Meinicke, J., Saake, G. and Leich, T., 2014. FeatureIDE: An extensible framework for feature-oriented software development. Science of Computer Programming, 79, pp.70-85.

29.    Lee, S.W. and Gandhi, R.A., 2005, December. Ontology-based Active Requirements Engi-neering Framework. In APSEC (pp. 481-490).

30.    Zong-yong, L., Zhi-xue, W., Ying-ying, Y., Yue, W.U. and Ying, L.I.U., 2007, July. Towards a multiple ontology framework for requirements elicitation and reuse. In Computer Software and Applications Conference, 2007. COMPSAC 2007. 31st Annual International (Vol. 1, pp. 189-195). IEEE.

31.    Génova, G., Fuentes, J.M., Llorens, J., Hurtado, O. and Moreno, V., 2013. A framework to measure and improve the quality of textual requirements. Requirements engineering, 18(1), pp.25-41.

32.    Saiedian, H., Kumarakulasingam, P. and Anan, M., 2005. Scenario-based requirements analysis techniques for real-time software systems: a comparative evaluation. Requirements Engineering, 10(1), pp.22-33.

33.    Chatzikonstantinou, G. and Kontogiannis, K., 2016. Run-time requirements verification for reconfigurable systems. Information and Software Technology, 75, pp.105-121.

34.    Martins, L.E.G. and Gorschek, T., 2016. Requirements engineering for safety-critical systems: A systematic literature review. Information and Software Technology, 75, pp.71-89.

35.    MITRE, 2016 June 10, Systems Engineering Guide.[Online]. Available.  https://www.mitre.org/publications/systems-engineering-guide/se-lifecycle-building-blocks/requirements-engineering/eliciting-collecting-and-developing-requirements 

36.    Outsource2india, 2016 June 10, Software Development.[Online]. Available. https://www.outsource2india.com/software/SoftwareProjectFailure.asp

37.    Sofia, 2010, Software Development Process- activities and steps. [Online]. Available. http://www.uacg.bg/filebank/acadstaff/userfiles/publ_bg_397_SDP_activities_and_steps.pdf

38.    Chua, B.B. and Verner, J., 2010. Examining requirements change rework effort: A study. arXiv preprint arXiv:1007.5126.

39.    Ghosh, S.M., Sharma, H.R. and Mohabay, V., 2011. Study of Impact Analysis of Software Requirement Change in SAP ERP. International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology, 33, pp.95-100.

40.    Korban,S,  2013, How to Prevent the Negative Impacts of Poor Requirements.  [Online]. Available. https://www.batimes.com/articles/how-to-prevent-the-negative-impacts-of-poor-requirements.html

41.    Bachmann, F., Bass, L., Chastek, G., Donohoe, P. and Peruzzi, F., 2000. The architecture based design method (No. CMU/SEI-00-TR-001). CARNEGIE-MELLON UNIV

42.    Suryn, W., Abran, A. and April, A., 2003. ISO/IEC SQuaRE. the second generation of stand-ards for software product quality.

43.    Mead, N.R. and Hough, E.D., 2006, April. Security requirements engineering for software systems: Case studies in support of software engineering education. In 19th Conference on Software Engineering Education & Training (CSEET'06) (pp. 149-158). IEEE.

44.    Aranda, J., Easterbrook, S. and Wilson, G., 2007, October. Requirements in the wild: How small companies do it. In 15th IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference (RE 2007) (pp. 39-48). IEEE.

45.    Pacheco, C. and Garcia, I., 2012. A systematic literature review of stakeholder identification methods in requirements elicitation. Journal of Systems and Software, 85(9), pp.2171-2181.

46.    Fitzgerald, B., 2012. Software crisis 2.0.

47.    Zowghi, D., Firesmith, D.G. and Henderson-Sellers, B., 2005. Using the OPEN process framework to produce a situation-specific requirements engineering method. Proceedings of SREP, 5, pp.29-30.

48.    Beecham, S., Hall, T. and Rainer, A., 2005. Defining a requirements process improvement model. Software Quality Journal, 13(3), pp.247-279.

49.    Hull, E., Jackson, K. and Dick, J., 2002. DOORS: a tool to manage requirements. In Require-ments engineering (pp. 187-204). Springer London.

50.    Damian, D.E. and Zowghi, D., 2003. RE challenges in multi-site software development or-ganisations. Requirements engineering, 8(3), pp.149-160.

51.    Cant, T., McCarthy, J. and Stanley, R., 2006. Tools for Requirements Management: a Com-parison of Telelogic DOORS and the HIVE (No. DSTO-GD-0466). DEFENCE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ORGANISATION SALISBURY (AUSTRALIA) INFO SCIENCES LAB.

52.    Lu, C.W., Chang, C.H., Chu, W.C., Cheng, Y.W. and Chang, H.C., 2008, July. A requirement tool to support model-based requirement engineering. In 2008 32nd Annual IEEE International Computer Software and Applications Conference (pp. 712-717). IEEE.

53.    Stal, M,. 2012, IRQA - A Requirements Definition and Management Solution for Systems Engineering Projects. https://www.infoq.com/news/2012/01/irqa

54.    Delor, E., Darimont, R. and Rifaut, A., 2003, December. Software quality starts with the mod-elling of goal-oriented requirements. In 16th International Conference Software & Systems Engineering and their Applications (pp. 1-6).

55.    Lami, G., Gnesi, S., Fabbrini, F., Fusani, M. and Trentanni, G., 2004. An automatic tool for the analysis of natural language requirements. Informe técnico, CNR Information Science and Technology Institute, Pisa, Italia, Setiembre.

56.    Wieringa, R. and Ebert, C., 2004. Guest Editors' Introduction: RE'03--Practical Requirements Engineering Solutions. IEEE Software, 21(2), p.16.

57.    Wang, M. and Zeng, Y., 2009. Asking the right questions to elicit product requirements. In-ternational Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing, 22(4), pp.283-298.

58.    Ang, J.K., Leong, S.B., Lee, C.F. and Yusof, U.K., 2011, March. Requirement engineering techniques in developing expert systems. In Computers & Informatics (ISCI), 2011 IEEE Symposium on (pp. 640-645). IEEE.

59.    Adam,S., Riegel, N., Doerr,J., 2014, TORE. A Framework for Systematic Requirements De-velopment in Information Systems.  http://re-magazine.ireb.org/issues/2014-4-steady-flight/tore/

60.    Jiang, L. and Eberlein, A., 2008, March. A framework for requirements engineering process development (FRERE). In 19th Australian Conference on Software Engineering (aswec 2008) (pp. 507-516). IEEE.

61.    Kheirkhah, E. and Deraman, A., 2008, August. Important factors in selecting requirements en-gineering techniques. In 2008 International Symposium on Information Technology (Vol. 4, pp. 1-5). IEEE.6.  Ribière, M., Charlton, P.: Ontology Overview. Motorola Labs, Paris (2002). [Online]. Available: http://www.fipa.org/docs/input/f-in-00045/f-in-00045.pdf (current October 2003)






N. Nachammai, R. Kayalvizhi

Paper Title:

Dragonfly Algorithm Based Fuzzy Logic Controller for Power Electronic Converter

Abstract:  Due to the time varying and switching nature of the Luo converters, their dynamic behavior becomes highly non-linear. Conventional controllers require a good knowledge of the system and accurate tuning in order to obtain the desired performances. A fuzzy logic controller neither requires a precise mathematical model of the system nor complex computations. Swarm Intelligence [SI] is a branch of evolutionary computing that inspired by the behavior of swarms in real life to search or optimizean objective function. The Dragonfly Algorithm [DA] is a global optimization technique based on swarm intelligence. Two essential phases of optimization, exploration and exploitation, are designed by modelling the social interaction of dragonflies in navigating, searching for foods, and avoiding enemies when swarming dynamically or statistically. The drawback of fuzzy controller has the tendency to oscillate around the final operating point. Proper selection of the normalizing gains for the inputs avoids oscillations. Hence Dragonfly Algorithm, an optimization technique is required to tune the fuzzy parameters. An attempt has been made in this work to design, simulate and implement, fuzzy logic and DA-fuzzy logic controllers for regulating the output voltage. The performances of the Luo converter with Fuzzy and DA-Fuzzy controllers are evaluated under line and load disturbances using Matlab-Simulink based simulation and compared. Comparison clearly shows the superiority of the proposed Dragonfly Algorithm over fuzzy controller applied for the control of Luo converter.

 Dragonfly Algorithm, Fuzzy Logic Controller, Positive Output Elementary LUO Converter.


1.       F.L.Luo and Hong Ye, Advanced DC/DC Converters, CRC Press, LLC, 2004.
2.       Tarun Kumar Bashishtha and Laxmi Srivastava, “Nature Inspired Meta-heuristic Dragonfly Algorithms For Solving Optimal Power Flow Problem”, International Journal of Electronics, Electrical and Computational System, Vol.5, Issue 5, May 2016, pp. 111-120. 

3.       Gururaghav Raman, Guru praanesh Raman, Chakkarapani Manickam and SaravanaIlango Ganesan, “Dragonfly Algorithm Based Global Maximum Power Point Tracker for Photovoltaic Systems”, Advances in Swarm Intelligence, Springer, 2016, pp. 211-219.

4.       Seyedali Mirjalili, “Dragonfly Algorithm: A New Meta-heuristic Optimization Technique for Solving Single-Objective, Discrete and Multi-Objective Problems”, Neural computing & Applications, Springer,2016,  pp. 1053-1073.

5.       R.H. Bhesdadiya, Mahesh H. Pandya, Indrajit N. Trivedi, Narottam Jangir, Pradeep Jangir and Arvind Kumar, “Price Penalty Factors Based Approach for Combined  Economic Emission Dispatch Problem Solution Using Dragonfly Algorithm”,  Proceedings of International conference on Energy Efficient Technologies for  sustainability, Nagarcoil, 2016, pp. 436-441.

6.       Mustafa Abdul Salam, Hossam M. Zawbaa, E. Emary, Kareem Kamal A. Ghany and B. Parv, “A Hybrid Dragonfly Algorithm With Extreme Learning Machine For Prediction”, Proceedings of International Symposium on innovations in Intelligent systems and applications, Sinaia, 2016, pp. 1-6.

7.       A. Hema Sekhar and Dr. A. Lakshmidevi, “Voltage Profile Improvement and Power System Losses Reduction with Multi TCSC Placement in Transmission System by Using Firing Angle Control Model With Heuristic Algorithms”, IOSR Journal of       Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Vol. 11, Issue 5, Oct 2016, pp. 10-21.

8.       Philip T.Daely  and Soo Y.Shin, “ Range Based Wireless Node Localization Using Dragonfly Algorithm”, Proceedings of Eighth International Conference on Uniquitous and Future Networks, Vienna, 2016, pp.1012-1015.

9.       S.Gomariz, F.Guinjoan, E.Vidal, L.Martinz and A.Poreda, ‘On the use of the describing function in fuzzy controller design for switching DC-DC regulators’, in Proc. IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, Geneva, Switzerland, 2000, pp. 247-250.






Silpa Rajan, Minu Lalitha Madhavu

Paper Title:

Survey on Reversible Data Hiding in Encrypted Images by Reversible Image Transformation (RIT)

Abstract:   To increase the security of the data, an image is in taken in an encrypted format. This process is followed in earlier techniques like RRBE, VRAE etc. In RIT, instead of converting it into an encrypted format, it is converted into another image.  Hence this image appears simply an anotherimage which is difficult for other users to decrypt. Using contrast – enhancement RDH method, data is then hidden in to the image. The advantage of using RDH is that there occurs no loss of data and contrast of the image is highly enhanced. Hence visual quality of the image is increased. The embedded data is extracted after which it is decrypted to recover the original data.

prediction error expansion, reversible data hiding, RRBE (reserving room before encryption), RIT (reversible image transformation), VRAE (vacating room after encryption).


1.       SilpaRajan, MinuLalithaMadhavu, “Reversible Data Hiding by His-togram Modification for Image Contrast Enhancement ” , Internation-al Research Journal of Engineering and Technology,   vol .3 Issue 11 pp.761-766 November 2016
2.       W. Hong, T. Chen, and H. Wu, “An improved reversible data hiding in encrypted images using side match,” IEEE Signal Process. Lett., vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 199–202, Apr. 2012

3.       W. Zhang, X. Hu, X. Li, and N. Yu, “Recursive histogram modification: Establishing equivalency between reversible data hiding and lossless data compres-sion,”IEEETrans.ImageProcess.,vol.22,no.7,pp.2775–2785, Jul. 2013.

4.       B.ou, X. Li, Y. Zhao, R. Ni, and Y. Shi, “Pairwise prediction-error expansionforefficientreversibledatahiding,”IEEETrans.ImageProcess.,vol. 22, no. 12, pp. 5010–5021, Dec. 2013.

5.       X. Zhang, “Reversible data hiding in encrypted images,” IEEE Signal Process. Lett., vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 255–258, Apr. 2011.

6.       Ioan – CatalinDragoi, DinuClotuc ,”Local – prediction – based differ-ence expansion reversible watermarking ”, “IEEE Trans. On Image Processing, vol.23, no.4, pp 1779- 1790, April 2014 ”

7.       X. Hu, W. Zhang, X. Li, and N. Yu, “Minimum rate prediction and optimized histograms modification for reversible data hiding,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics Security, vol. 10, no. 3, 653–664, Mar. 2015.

8.       2014 celebrity photo hack [Online].Available:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2014_celebrity_photo_hack

9.       K. Ma, W. Zhang, X. Zhao, N. Yu, and F. Li, “Reversible data hiding in encrypted images by reserving room before encryption,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics Security, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 553–562, Mar. 2013.

10.    Z. Qian and X. Zhang, “Reversible data hiding in encrypted image with distributed source encoding,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol., vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 636–646, Apr. 2016.

11.    W. Zhang, K. Ma, and N. Yu, “Reversibility improved data hiding in encrypted images,” Signal Process., vol. 94, pp. 118–127, Jan. 2014.

12.    W. Zhang, K. Ma, and N. Yu, “Reversibility improved data hiding in encrypted images,” Signal Process., vol. 94, pp. 118–127, Jan. 2014.

13.    X. Zhang, “Reversible data hiding in encrypted images,” IEEE Signal Process. Lett., vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 255–258, Apr. 2011

14.    Y. Lee and W. Tsai, “A new secure image transmission technique via secret-fragmentvisible mosaic images by nearly reversible colour transformation,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol., vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 695–703, Apr. 2014.






Naveen Pathak, Anand Bisen

Paper Title:

A Review on MANET using Soft Computing and Dempster-Shafer Theory

Abstract: Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) is an substructure-less, dynamic network include of a sets of wirelessly mobility nodes which communicate with all different without the exploit of any centralized authority. Because of its fundamental characteristics, like as wireless medium, dynamic topology, distributed cooperation. In this paper we study MANET and its characteristics, application, security goals and different types security attacks, soft computing approach and dempster-shafer theory of evidence.

 MANET; soft computing appproch; dempster-shafer theory of evidence;


1.       PriyankaGoyal, VintiParmarand Rahul Rishi, “MANET: Vulnerabilities, Challenges, Attacks, Applications”, IJCEM, Vol.11, January 2011
2.       Aarti,  Dr. S. S. Tyagi “  Study of MANET: Characteristics, Challenges, Application and Security Attacks”  Volume 3, Issue 5, May 2013.

3.       C. R. Lin and M. Gerla, “Adaptive Clustering for Mobile Wireless  Networks,” IEEE JSAC, vol. 15, pp. 1265–75, Sept. 1997 

4.       Chlamtac, I., Conti, M., and Liu, J. J.-N. Mobile ad hoc networking: imperatives and challenges. Ad Hoc Networks, 1(1), 2003, pp. 13–6

5.       HaoYang, Haiyun& Fan Ye ― Security in mobile ad-hoc networks : Challenges and solutions,‖, Pg. 38-47, Vol 11, issue 1, Feb 2004.

6.       Bin Lu and Udo W. Pooch, “Cooperative Security-Enforcement Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” in proceedings of the 4th IEEE International Conference on Mobile and Wireless Communications Network (MWCN 2002), Stockholm, Sweden, September 2002, pp.157 – 161.

7.       Siddesh.G.K,K.N.Muralidhara,Manjula.N.Harihar,2011. Routing in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks using SoftComputing techniques and performanceevaluation using HypernetsimulatorInternational Journal of Soft Computing and Engineering (IJSCE)ISSN: 2231-2307, Volume-1, Issue-3, July 2011.

8.       Skabar and I. Cloete,2001. Discovery of financial traading rules. In Proc. Artificial Intelligence and Applications (AIA2001), pages 121–125, Marbella, Spain.

9.       Cloete and A. Skabar,2001. Feature selection for financial trading rules. In Proceedings of 13th.EuropeanSimulation Symposium:Simulation in Industry, pages 713–717, Marseille,France,

10.    Parimal Kumar Giri, Member,IACSIT,2012.A Survey on Soft Computing Techniques forMulti-Constrained QoS Routing in MANETIJCIT, ISSN 2078-5828 (PRINT), ISSN 2218-5224 (ONLINE), VOLUME 03, ISSUE 02, MANUSCRIPT CODE: 130103.

11.    T. Kohonen,1982. Self-organized formation of topologically correctfeature maps. Biological Cybernetics, 43:59–69.

12.    Jaspal Jindal Vishal Gupta Associate Professor in ECE Deptt. M.Tech (ECE) Student P.I.E.T College Smalkha (Panipat) ,2013. International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering Volume 3, Issue 6, June2013 ISSN: 2277 128X,June 2013

13.    Sharad Sharma, Shakti Kumar and Brahmjit Singh,1,3Deptt. of Electronics & Communication Engineering, National Institute ofTechnology,Kurukshetra, India2Computational Intelligence (CI) Lab, IST Klawad, Yamunanagar, India2013. Routing in Wireless Mesh Networks: Two Soft Computing Based Approaches. International Journal of Mobile Network Communications & Telematics (IJMNCT) Vol. 3, No.3, June 2013DOI: 10.5121/ijmnct.2013.3304 29.

14.    Luis Bernardo, Rodolfo Oliveira, Sérgio Gaspar, David Paulino and Paulo Pinto A Telephony Application for Manets: Voice over a MANET-Extended JXTA Virtual Overlay Network

15.    Indira N, “Establishing a secure routing in MANET using a Hybrid Intrusion Detection System”, 978-1-4799-8159-5/14/$31.00©2014 IEEE.

16.    V. G. Muralishankar, Dr. E. George Dharma PrakashRaj”Routing Protocols for MANET: A Literature Survey” ©2014, IJCSMA All Rights Reserved, www.ijcsma.com.

17.    R.RagulRavi , V.Jayanthi “A Survey of Routing Protocol in MANET” R.RagulRavi et al, / (IJCSIT) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technologies, Vol. 5 (2) , 2014, 1984-1988.

18.    Alex Hinds, Michael Ngulube, Shaoying Zhu, and Hussain Al-Aqrabi “A Review of Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad-Hoc NETworks (MANET)” International Journal of Information and Education Technology, Vol. 3, No. 1, February 2013.

19.    Boaz Benmoshe, Eyal Berliner. AmitDvir “Performance Monitoring Framework for Wi-Fi MANET” 2013 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC): SERVICES & APPLICATIONS

20.    Parimal Kumar Giri, Member,IACSIT,2012.A Survey on Soft Computing Techniques forMulti-Constrained QoS Routing in MANETIJCIT, ISSN 2078-5828 (PRINT), ISSN 2218-5224 (ONLINE), VOLUME 03, ISSUE 02, MANUSCRIPT CODE: 130103/2012.

21.    Adnan Nadeem “A Survey of MANET Intrusion Detection & Prevention Approaches for Network Layer Attacks”2012.

22.    Adnan Nadeem “A Survey of MANET Intrusion Detection & Prevention Approaches for Network Layer Attacks”2012.

23.    S. A. Ade & P. A. Tijare, “Performance Comparison of AODV, DSDV, OLSR and DSRRouting Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”, International Journal of Information Technology and Knowledge Management, July-Dec 2010, Volume 2, No. 2, pp. 545-548

24.    B.Praveen Kumar P.ChandraSekharN.PapannaB.BharathBhushan “A SURVEY ON MANET SECURITY CHALLENGES AND ROUTING PROTOCOLS” P Chandra Sekhar et al, Int.J.Computer Technology & Applications,Vol 4 (2),248-256.






Nor Azlina Abd Rahman, Vinothini Kasinathan, Rajasvaran Logeswaran, Nurwahida Faradila Taharim

Paper Title:

Edutainment for Effective Teaching and Learning of Digital Natives

Abstract:  This paper studies an effort to enhance the teaching and learning of Digital Natives (ages below 36 years old or born after the year 1980). It explores the concept and current meaning of Edutainment with a focus on a game called QR IT Seek, developed with consideration of the specific characteristics of Digital Native learners who are the future workforce of a nation. The paper endeavors to respond to the demands of the Digital Natives who are distinctly different from the previous generations. The pressure exists for teaching and delivering concepts to the younger generation due to these characteristics. Hence, it is vital for educators of higher learning to develop innovative methods of teaching tertiary education materials and rediscover the concept and application of Edutainment. The need for this study and its findings is enhanced because without attention given to the specific needs of these students at institutions of higher education today, there would be significant impact on the achievement of learning outcomes and result in long term global consequences in this borderless world.

Edutainment, QR-Code, QR IT Seek competition, Digital Natives, pedagogy.


1.       Metin Argan, Necip Serdar Sever “Constructs and Relationships of Edutainment Applications in Marketing Classes: How Edutainment Can be Utilized to Act as a Magnet for Choosing a Course?,” Contemporary Educational Technology, 2010, 1(2). Available at:< http://www.acarindex.com/dosyalar/makale/acarindex-1423874753.pdf> [Accessed 1 April 2015] 
2.       Wessels, P.L & Steenkamp, L.P. (2009). Generation Y students: Appropriate learning styles and teaching approaches in the economic and management sciences faculty. South African Journal of Higher Education, 23(5), 1039-1058

3.       Heather Fry, Steve Ketteridge and Stephanie Marshall, 2009, A Handbook for Teaching and Learning in Higher Education Enhancing Academic Practice, 3rd Edition,
Routledge, ISBN 0-203-89141-4

4.       Walia, 2015, “Entertainment vs. Edutainment: Bollywood Movies as Pedagogical Tools,” International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET), Vol2, Issue 1, pg 139 – 140.  Available at: < https://www.irjet.net/archives/V2/i1/Irjet-v2i130.pdf> [Accessed 12 May 2015]

5.       Anderson, D., Kisiel, J., & Storksdieck, M. (2006). Understanding teachers' perspectives on field trips: Discovering common ground in three countries. Curator, 4(3), 365–386.

6.       Saomya Saxena, 2013, “Best Educational Websites and Games for High-School Students”, EdTechReview. Available at:< http://edtechreview.in/news/834-best-educational-websites-and-games-for-high-school-students> [Accessed 20 July 2015]

7.       Mark Griffiths, 2002, “The educational benefits of videogames,” Education and Health, Vol 20, No 3, pg 47-51. Available at:< http://sheu.org.uk/sites/sheu.org.uk/files/imagepicker/1/eh203mg.pdf> [Accessed 21 July 2015]

8.       Vinothini Kasinathan, Nor Azlina Abd Rahman and Mohamad Firdaus Che Abdul Rani “Approaching Digital Natives with QR Code Technology in Edutainment. A case study: QR Technology in APU Campus Area,” International journal of Education and Research, Vol2, Issue 4, pg 169-178. Available at: <http://www.ijern.com/journal/April-2014/16.pdf> [Accessed 1 April 2015]

9.       MM Mubaslat, “The Effect of Using Educational Games on the Students’ Achievement in English Language for the Primary Stage”, 2012, Institute of Education Sciences. Available at: < http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED529467.pdf> [Accessed 5 January 2016]

10.    Buckingham, D. and Scanlon, M. (2005) ‘Selling learning: towards a political economy of edutainment media,’ in Media, Culture and Society, vol. 27, no. 1. pp 41-58






Shadrack Mutungi Simon, Abednego Gwaya, Stephen Diang’a

Paper Title:

Exploring the Practice of Resource Planning and Leveling (RP&L) Among Contractors in the Kenyan Construction Industry

Abstract: The performance of construction projects depends to a great extent on how best resources are managed. Resource planning and leveling are critical aspects of resource management which need to be fully incorporated and practised in any site. Failure to manage the resources available through planning and leveling is likely to result in increased project costs, time overruns and poor quality. This assertion is supported by Tarek, (2010) who argues that proper resource planning and leveling helps resolve resource conflicts, which cause numerous challenges to the organization, such as: delay in completion of certain tasks, challenges in assigning a different resource to a certain task, inability to alter task dependencies, addition or removal of certain tasks and overall time and cost overruns of projects. He further argues that the aim of resource leveling is to increase efficiency when undertaking projects by maximizing on the resources available at hand. While it would be true to say that quite a number of authors have addressed the issue of resource management, the author feels that the subject of resource planning and leveling in the Kenyan construction industry is not well covered. This is due to a number of reasons which create a gap to be researched on. Authors such as Abeyasinghe et al., (2001); Ballard, (2000); Bandelloni et al., (1994) among others have covered different aspects of resource planning and leveling. It is however important to note that all these authors address the topic in developed countries. Some of the literature found on the topic is based on the manufacturing industry. This therefore creates the need to study the Kenyan construction industry and establish the underlying factors behind the practice of resource planning and leveling among construction industry players. The purpose of this research was to explore the practice of resource planning and leveling (RP&L) adopted by contractors within the Kenyan construction industry and the factors influencing the adoption of such techniques. This research mainly adopted a case study design where questionnaires were used to collect data from respondents. The research site was Nairobi and the target population was NCA 1-3 contractors. Random sampling was used to identify the 106 respondents. A response rate of 76% was achieved. Data obtained was analyzed using descriptive statistics, relative importance index analysis and spearman’s correlation analysis. The study concluded that: though there is a high level of usage of RP&L in the Kenyan construction industry much of which is non-structured, construction projects’ progress continue to be affected by delayed materials, lack of labour and lack of equipment at the points of need; RP&L is practised more in older contracting firms and where there is support from top management; and finally a high degree of RP is associated with reduced negative impact of construction project progress

 Resource Planning, Resource Leveling, Construction Project Performance.


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2.       Ala-Risku, T., & Kärkkäinen, M. (2006). Material delivery problems in construction projects: A possible solution. International Journal of Production Economics, 104(1), 19–29. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpe.2004.12.027

3.       Ankrah, A. (2007). An investigation into the impact of culture on construction project performance. University of Wolverhampton.

4.       Aslani, P., Christodoulou, S., Griffis, F. H., Ellinas, G., & Chiarelli, L. (2009). Activity prioritisation under resource constraints using a utility index method. The Open Construction & Building Technology Journal, 3, 33–41.
5.       Badawiyeh, B. H. (2010). The Effect of Planning and Resource Leveling.
6.       Ballard. (2000). The last planner system of production control. University of Birmingham, UK.

7.       Bandelloni, M., Tucci, M., & Rinaldi, R. (1994). Optimal resource leveling using non-serial dynamic programming. European Journal of Operational Research, European Journal of Operational Research, 78(2), 162–177.

8.       Broadhurst, K., Holt, K., & Doherty, P. (2012). Accomplishing parental engagement in child protection practice?: A qualitative analysis of parent-professional interaction in pre-proceedings work under the Public Law Outline. Qualitative Social Work, 11(5), 517–534. http://doi.org/10.1177/1473325011401471

9.       Bryman, A. (2004). Social Research Methods (Fourth). London: Oxford university press.

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11.    Bryman, A., & Bell, E. (2007). Business Research Methods. London: Oxford university press.

12.    Charoenngam, C. (2003). Planning and scheduling consideration and constraints in automated construction environment. 13th ISARC, 475–482.

13.    Chitkara. (1998). Essentialsof construction projct managemet. Newsouth publishing.

14.    Clough, R., & Sears, G. (1991). Construction Project Management. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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16.    Cunningham, T. (2013). Factors Affecting The Cost of Building Work - An Overview. Dublin Institute of Technology, 0–21.

17.    Czaja, R., & Blair, J. (1996). Designing surveys: a guide to decisions and procedures. London: Pine Forge Press.

18.    Dubey, A. (2015). Resource Levelling for a Construction Project, 12(4), 5–11. http://doi.org/10.9790/1684-12440511

19.    Hegazy, T. (2010). Resource Leveling Vs Resource Allocation, 59–65. Retrieved from http://www.tutorialspoint.com/management_concepts/resource_leveling.htm

20.    K’Akumu, O. a. (2007). Construction statistics review for Kenya. Construction Management and Economics, 25(3), 315–326. http://doi.org/10.1080/01446190601139883

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23.    Lau, E., & Kong, J. J. (2006). Identification of Constraints in Construction. Projects To Improve Performance. Sustainable Development through Culture and Innovation, 655–663. Retrieved from http://www.irbnet.de/daten/iconda/CIB4451.pdf

24.    Mendoza, C. (1995). Resource Planning and Resource Allocation in the Construction Industry. University of Florida.

25.    Mugenda, O. ., & Mugenda, A. . (1999). Research methods: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches. Nairobi: Acts Press.

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27.    Reddy, B. S. K., & Nagaraju, S. K. (2015). A Study on Optimization of Resources for Multiple projects by using Primavera. Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, 10(2), 235–248.

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33.    Thomas, S., Skitmore, R., Lam, & Poon, A. (2004). Demotivating factors influencing the productivity of civil engineering projects. International Journal of Project Management, 136–146.

34.    United Nations Centre for Human Settlements. (1984). The Construction Industry in Developing Countries. UNCHS Habitat, 2.






Jerry Chong Chean Fuh, Khalida Shajaratuddur Harun, Nor Azlina Abd Rahman, Sandra A. P Gerald

Paper Title:

MENTOR as a Learning Method for Slow Learners

Abstract:  This paper proposed a prototype of an electronic learning system for slow learning children to enable the kindergarten education to create a better learning environment for children between the ages of four to six years old. The purpose is to enable the slow learning children to learn in more effectively and independently at anytime. In general, the term 'slow learning children' is referring to children who tend to take longer time to understand certain information when compared to other children with similar age. To elaborate further, kids who require multiple explanations before they are able to grasp a concept. The system should help children improve their ability to be flexible and creative as well as encourage slow learning children to gain confidence in their daily life. The prototype developed after considering several elements that is suitable for slow learner that focusing more on multimedia elements which are images, sounds and interactive activities. The prototype is not just focusing on learning but also enable the teachers to share the children progress with the parents. This paper presented a workable E-learning software prototype which is MENTOR system for young age users for self-improvement and learning. The prototype has 3 users; slow learner children, tutors and parents. In other words the parents able to monitor their child progress using this MENTOR system. The technologies used to develop the prototype and advantages of MENTOR system are also highlighted.

component; MENTOR; slow learning children


1.       Abdollah. N., Ahmah. W, Akhir. E ‘Multimedia courseware for slow learners: A preliminary analysis’ (2010) Available at: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/article/slow+learner+teachers
2.       Ahmed Al Hamad, Norlaily Yaacob and A. Y. Al-Zoubi(2008) Integrating ‘Learning Style’ Information into Personalized e-Learning System . ENGINEERING EDUCATION,
Available at: http://www.ewh.ieee.org/soc/e/sac/itee/index.php/meem/article/viewFile/9/12

3.       Rahmah Lob Yussof and Halimah Badioze Zaman, “Usability Methodology of Multimedia Courseware (Mel-Sindd) for Down Syndrome Learner,” Proceedings of the 3rd International Malaysian Educational Technology Convention, Penang, Malaysia,2009.

4.       Lee Lay Wah, “Development of Multimedia Learning Resources for Children with Learning Disabilities in an Undergraduate Special Education Technology Course,” MEDC Vol.1.,2007.

5.       Mohamad Firdaus Che Abdul Rani, Rizawati Rohizan, Nor Azlina Abd Rahman, 'Web-based learning tool for primary school student with Dyscalculia', The International Conference on Information Technology and Multimedia (ICIMu 2014), 19 – 20 November

6.       Earnshaw, T. & Seargeant, A. (2005). Dealing with dyslexia and other reading difficulties. Prentice Hall

7.       J. P. Khas, Huraian Sukatan Pelajaran Pendidikan Khas Bermasalah Pembelajaran Sekolah Rendah & Menengah. Kuala Lumpur: Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia, 2003.

8.       Norfarhana Abdollah, Wan Fatimah Wan Ahmad, Emelia Akashah Patah Akhir, Development and Usability Study of Multimedia Courseware for Slow Learners: 'Komputer Saya', 2012 International Conference on Computer & Information Science (ICCIS), 2012

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Monicah Wairimu Chonge

Paper Title:

An Investigation of the Performance of Local Contractors in Kenya

Abstract: The performance of contractors is a great determinant of their success or failure. Poor performance is linked to failure whereas good performance is linked to success. Despite of this, contractors in most industries of the world, and most especially the developing countries, have been accused of poor performance. In Kenya, the situation is not different as the performance of the contractors has been termed as poor as far as time, cost and quality is concerned. This study therefore sought to validate this accusation by finding out the level of the performance of contractors in Kenya. Thirteen performance measures as identified in the literature review were used as the scale of measure. These were: time, cost, quality, client satisfaction, health and safety, environment protection, participants’ satisfaction, community satisfaction, sustainability of the development, functionality of the development, communication, profitability and productivity. The study employed the quantitative strategy as well as the cross-sectional research design. Quantitative data was collected through the use of structured questionnaires which were administered to local contractors of category NCA 1, 2 and 3. The contractors were sampled using the stratified random sampling and the systematic random sampling techniques. The data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS for windows version 20). The method used for data analysis was descriptive statistics. The analysis revealed that the local contractors are average performers when all the performance measures are used to gauge their performance. But when these performance measures are considered separately, they performed poorly on time, cost, profitability, productivity and client satisfaction. They have an average performance on health and safety, participants’ satisfaction, community satisfaction, environmental protection, sustainability, communication, quality and functionality. This study therefore concludes that local contractors in Kenya of category NCA 1, 2 and 3 can be termed as average performers rather than poor performers.

Contractors performance, Performance measures, Construction industry


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3.       Auma, E. (2014). Factors affecting the performance of construction projects in Kenya: A survey of low rise buildings in Nairobi Central Business District. The International Journal of Business Management.

4.       Business dictionary. (2015). The meaning and definition of performance.

5.       Chan, A. ., & Tam, C. M. (2000). Factors affecting quality of building projects in Hong Kong. International Journal of Quality and Reliability Management, 17(4/5), 423–441.

6.       Chan, D. W. M., Chan, M. M., & Kumaraswamy, M. M. (2002). Compressing construction duration: lesson learned from Hong Kong building projects. International J0urnal of Project Management, 20, 23–25.

7.       Cheung, S. O., Suen, H. C., & Cheung, K. K. W. (2004). PPMS: a Web-based construction Project Performance Monitoring System. Automation in Construction, 13(3), 361–366.

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9.       Hussaini, M., Syuhaida, I., & Lee, M. R. (2014). Key performance indicators (KPI) of contractor on project performance for housing construction in Malasyia. Razak School of Engineering and Advanced Technology, Kualalumpur Malasyia.

10.    Jha, K. N., & Lyer, K. C. (2006). Critical factors affecting quality performance in constructionprojects. Total Quality Management, 17(9), 1155–1170.

11.    Kibuchi, N., & Muchungu, P. (2012). The contribution of human factors in the performance of construction projects in Kenya: a case study of construction project team participants in Nairobi.

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15.    Kuta, J., & Nyaanga, D. M. (2014). The effect of competence of contractors on construction of substandard buildings in Kenya. Prime Journal of Social Sciences, 3(3), 637–641.

16.    Macharia, S. M. (2015). Determinants of successful completion of power projects in Kenya Power and Lightning. International Journal of Social Sciences Entrepreneurship, 1(12), 570–580.

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18.    Muguiyi, M. W. (2012). Factors influencing performance of contractors of government funded projects in Kirinyaga county- Kenya. University of Nairobi.

19.    Nassar, K., & Hosny, O. (2013). Fuzzy clustering validity for contractor performance evaluation: Application to UAE contractors. Automation in Construction, 158

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Maha Abdul Ameer Kadhum

Paper Title:

Design A Program to Simulate the Active Antennas

Abstract:  In this research has been studying and analyzing some types of properties antennas normal, then been improved characteristics after conversion to efficient antennas with compared to the old characteristics of antennas and new characteristics which distinguish solving Maxwell's equations have . Allantij showed  an antenna model improved the overall value of the proportion of the voltage wave, increase bandwidth In addition to giving him a more stable long distance. Study antenna adaptive, which is the best levels used in smart antennas and signal systems with different levels of intelligence and work simulation using (demand) to one of the levels in the system and analyze its results were used algorithm less square error rate high Astaqraratha and simplicity mathematically was a simulation of the system operation.

 antenna, wavelengths, antennas adaptive simulation.


1.       A.Andrews, TEEE "standard for local metropolis Area network, part 16, air interface for fixed broadband Wires access system".IEEE, std 802, 16-2004.
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Rucha Dilip Patil, C. M. Jadhav

Paper Title:

Autonomously-Reconfigurable Wireless Mesh Networks

Abstract: Multi-hop wireless mesh network experience link-fail due to channel interference (i/f), dynamic obstacles etc. which causes performance degradation of the network in Wireless Mesh Networks. The paper proposes “The base of Autonomously Reconfigurable Wireless Mesh Networks system is IEEE 802.11” for mr-WMN to recover autonomously when the network failure occurs & to improve the performance of network. The paper uses an autonomously network reconfiguration system (ARS) algorithm to maintain network performance that allows a multi radio WMN to own recover from local link failure. ARS generates needful changes in local radio and channel assignments in order to recover from failures by using channels and radio variability in WMN's. Next, the system cooperatively reconfigures network setting among local mesh routers based on the generated configuration changes.

IEEE 802.11, multi-radio wireless mesh networks (mr-WMNs), Autonomous-Reconfigurable Network, Wireless Link Failures.


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7.       R. Draves, J. Padhye, and B. Zill, “Routing in multi-radio, multi-hop wireless meshnetworks,” in Proc. ACM MobiCom, Philadelphia, PA, Sep. 2004, pp. 114–128.

8.       Raniwala and T. Chiueh, “Architecture and algorithms for an IEEE 802.11-basedmulti- channel wireless mesh network,” in Proc. IEEE IN-FOCOM, Miami, FL, Mar. 2005,vol. 3

9.       Xiao Shu, Xining Li, “Link Failure Rate and Speed of Nodes in Wireless Network”, Computingand Info. SCi. University Canada, 2008 IEEE.

10.    L.Qiu, P.Bahl,A. Rao, and L. Zhou, “Troubleshooting multi-hop wire- less networks,”in Proc. ACM SIGMETRICS, Jun. 2005, pp. 380–381.

11.    P. Kyasanur and N. Vaidya, “Capacity of multi-channel wireless net-works: Impact ofnumber of channels and interfaces,” in Proc. ACM Mobi Com, Cologne, Germany, Aug.2005, pp. 43–57.






Issa Y. S. Ali, Sedat Nazlibilek

Paper Title:

Design and Performance Analysis of a Robust Power System Stabilizer for Single Machine Infinite Bus using ADRC Approach

Abstract:  Due to the rapid growing demand for electricity, power systems nowadays have become operating under continually changing in loads and operating conditions which is a major cause of instabilities and could potentially result in serious consequences. This paper presents a novel design approach by employing a robust damping control of power systems based on ‘Active Disturbance Rejection Control’ (ADRC) algorithm in order to improve system stability. The advantage of this algorithm is that it requires little information from the plant model since the relative order of open loop transfer function information is quite sufficient to design a robust controller. This makes the power system more robust against a wide range of disturbances that are commonly encountered in such systems. Here, the proposed ADRC control algorithm is developed for a synchronous machine connected to infinite bus (SMIB) through external reactance under small-disturbance condition. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm has been verified by comparing it with an optimally tuned Conventional Power System Stabilizer (CPSS) under various loading conditions. The comparison shows that the proposed approach guarantees system stability and exhibits higher performance than CPSS which lacks robustness at some severe operating points despite being optimally tuned.

Active Disturbance Rejection Control (ADRC); Dynamic Analysis; Small Signal Stability; Power system stabilizer (PSS); Single Machine Infinite Bus (SMIB). 


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15.    R. Krishan and A. Verma, "Robust tuning of power system stabilizers using hybrid intelligent algorithm," in Power and Energy Society General Meeting (PESGM), 2016, 2016, pp. 1-5.






Pankaj Agarwal, Shreeya Sharma, Lavanya Gupta, B. Manideep

Paper Title:

Smart Electronic Garbage Management System-Based IOT

Abstract:  This paper aims to provide an overview of the voluntary approaches towards enhancing the design of a smart dustbin for the implementation of advanced waste management systems. In most of the places, the Municipal garbage bins are overflowing and they are not cleaned at proper time. As a result of which the consequences are severe. It includes overflow of garbage which results in land pollution, spread of diseases, also it creates unhygienic conditions for people, and ugliness to that place. There needs to be system that gives prior information of the filling of the bin that alerts the municipality so that they can clean the bin on time and safeguard the environment. To avoid all such situations we intend to propose a solution for this problem “Smart Garbage Bin”, which will alarm and inform the authorized person by buzzer and alert system when the garbage bin is about to fill. To avoid all such unhygienic circumstances we are going to implement a project based on iot called smart trash management by interfacing an trash bin with infrared sensors, lcd, buzzer, wifi modules via an arduino atmega .The current status of trash bin is depicted by sensors and automatically updates garbage level on html page with the help of a wifi module. The main objective of this paper is to propose a plan to reduce human effort and resources along with the enhancement of smart city vision and to maintain a pollution free environment around our homes and specially in public places

Smart Garbage Bin, Level of Garbage Detection, Wifi Module, Update Garbage level, Buzzer and Alert System, Smart City Vision.


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4.    Narayan Sharma, Nirman Singha, Tanmoy Dutta, "Smart Bin Implementation for Smart Cities", International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 6, Issue 9, September-2015, pp. 787--791

5.    Vikrant Bhor, Pankaj Morajkar, Maheshwar Gurav, Dishant Pandya4 “Smart Garbage Management System” International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT) ISSN: 2278-0181 IJERTV4IS031175 Vol. 4 Issue ,03 March-2015

6.    Arkady Zaslavsky, Dimitrios Georgakopoulos ”Internet of Things: Challenges and State-of-the-art solutions in Internet-scale Sensor Information Management and Mobile Analytics” 2015 16th IEEE International Conference on Mobile Data Management






V. Kanchana, M. Prabu

Paper Title:

An Implementation of Sensors based to Mitigate over Train-Elephant Conflicts

Abstract: Animal accidents caused due to train are one of the major issues these days.  “Train-Elephant Conflict” Causes difficulties for both the human and the elephants. It is very dangerous issues and this causes a vast reduction in the animal species. More over elephants are the species that are rare to see and this accident still reduces the population of elephants. Mostly at night times the forest officials and the train operator cannot so attentive due which accidents occur. In the proposed system, there is an acoustic sensor fixed at the path of elephant which would be sensed and an automatic message will be sent to the train operator, thereby minimizing the accidents occurring.

 Acoustics, Train-Elephant Conflict, Sensor, accidens


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13.    Ritesh Joshi, “Train Accident Deaths of Leopards Panthera Pardus in Rajaji National Park: A Population in threat”, World Journal of Zoology, Volume 5, Number 3, 2010, PP. 156-161.

14.    Singh and Chalisagaonkar, “Restoration of Corridors to Facilitate the Movement of Wild Asian Elephant of Wild Asian Elephant in Rajaji-Corbett Elephant Range”, India,

15.    Vartika Anand, Shalini Shah and Sunil Kumar, “Intelligent Adaptive Filtering For Noise Cancellation”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Electrical, Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering, Volume. 2, Issue 5, 2013.

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